GLOSSARY


Words and Acronyms For GlobalTel Agents and Customers Definitions for the Computer, Internet, Marketing, and Business

SEE ALSO THESE INTERNET GLOSSARIES:

Languages and computers:www.babylon.com/
Cnet.com glossary:www.cnet.com/Resources/Info/Glossary/
All business glossary:www.allbusiness.com - Business and Technical terms
Glossary 2000:http://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/fs-1037/fs-1037c.htm - Technical terms
Privacy foundation glossary:http://www.law.du.edu/index.php/law-school-learning-aids/legal-glossary



A


Accounts payable
Debts currently owed by a person or a company, typically to the company´s suppliers. Accounts payable are subtracted from the sales or revenue amounts on a balance sheet in order to calculate net income and net worth.

Accounts receivable
Money owed to a company by its customers. A large amount of accounts receivable in comparison to the company´s sales may indicate that the company is low on cash

ASP
ASP is the file extension of, "active server page".

Addendum
Addendum an attachment or addition to a written document, such as a contract.

Agent
A person granted the express or implied authority to act on behalf of another person or entity, known as the "principal." the actions and decisions of the agent are binding on the principal.

Analog
Analog technology transmits a voice signal as a series of pulses, similar to radio signals. As compared to digital transmissions of voice signals, analog is more vulnerable to eavesdropping and cloning. Because of its high-speed data delivery, PCS is less prone to interference from hills, traffic or tunnels.

Analog cellular service
The original and most common method of wireless phone service. Analog cellular is rapidly being replaced by cheaper and higher-capacity digital wireless technologies.

Applet
A small program that performs a limited set of tasks. Internet-based programs that use the java programming language are often referred to as applets.

Arbitiration
A form of alternative dispute resolution in which a neutral third party (an arbitrator) considers the competing parties arguments and evidence and renders a decision or award. Nonbinding arbitration enables parties dissatisfied by the arbitrator's decision take their dispute to a court.

B


Bad Credit
A company is considered to have bad credit if it repeatedly pay its bills or loan payments late -- or not at all.

Bandwidth
The amount of data that a transmission line can carry, usually measured in bits per second (bps). A high-bandwidth internet connection such as a t-1 line, DSL or cable modem can transfer millions of bits per second (megabits per second, or mbps), while standard pc modems transfer thousands of bits per second (kilobits per second, or kbps).

Banner Ad
The amount of data that a transmission line can carry, usually measured in bits per second (bps). A high-bandwidth internet connection such as a t-1 line, DSL or cable modem can transfer millions of bits per second (megabits per second, or mbps), while standard pc modems transfer thousands of bits per second (kilobits per second, or kbps).

Beeper
Slang for a paging device.

Bin-bin
Bin-bin (common gateway interface -- binary) the directory on a web server that hosts CGI programs.

Bios (basic input/output system)
A program that provides basic information about a computer’s hardware. Operating systems and other applications use the bios to control a computer’s hard disk, display, ports and other essential devices.

Bit
The basic unit in a binary numbering system, representing either zero or one and corresponding to the two possible positions of a switch in an integrated circuit (open or closed).

Bookmark
A marker or address that identifies a web site or web page. Most web browsers, such as netscape navigator and Microsoft internet explorer (which calls them favorites), allow users to save and organize bookmarks as a convenient way to mark web sites for future reference.

Boot (or reboot)
The process of starting (or restarting) a PC. The term boot drive or boot disk refers to the disk drive from which the computer loads its operating system.

BPS (bits per second)
Common measure of data transmission speed.

Breach of contract
A violation of or failure to perform according to the terms of a contract.

Broadband
A high-speed transmission medium. T-1, isdn, DSL and cable modems are broadband media. Besides downloading web pages more quickly, broadband can also transmit high-quality streaming video.

Broken link
A hyperlink that does not work, usually because the URL is incorrect or the web page to which the link refers has been moved or deleted.

Browser
Software that lets you view web sites. Most browsers display text, images, animation and other forms of online content. Popular browsers include netscape navigator and Microsoft internet explorer; other specialized browsers can display web pages as all text, audio output or even braille.

Browser
The software that allows you to view the Internet; contains navigator commands such as forward and back; such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer. A Web browser in your computer requests HTML files from Web servers; takes you to the Internet sites you wish to visit, by linking your computer's IP address to a site's IP address.

Bug
A programming error that causes computer software to malfunction. The term originated when a wayward insect caused a short circuit in the eniac, the world´s first electronic digital computer.

Byte
A unit of data composed of eight bits. A single byte usually represents an individual text character or symbol.

C


Cable Modem
A device that sends and receives data over a cable television system. Cable modems can receive data at 500kbps or more -- approximately 10 times faster than a standard analog modem. Uploads, however, are often limited to 128kbps.

Cache
The memory for the browser to record the last pages that were visited. Pages are commonly retrieved by hitting the "back" button.

Callback
A service in which the call direction is reversed to take advantage of lower pricing from one end. For example, if a telephone customer in Japan wants to place a call to a friend in Australia using callback he would dial his access number in the USA, hang up and wait a few seconds for a callback from the USA. By calling his access number in the USA and hanging up, he has triggered his callback company’s switch to call him at his telephone number in Japan. When he answers his callback he has a USA dial tone, and is using the USA telephone system to make his call to Australia at low USA rates. Most callback companies are based in the USA since USA rates are the lowest in the world. The callback industry was founded by IDT Corp., of Hackensack, New Jersey, in 1991. It was recognized and sanctioned as an industry by the FCC on June 15, 1995. Callback enables customers to avoid high telephone rates charged in any country. They can also avoid hotel surcharges on phone calls.

Call-forwarding
An optional telephone system feature that lets users forward incoming calls to another phone number.

Call-waiting
An optional phone service that lets users temporarily interrupt their conversations to accept another call.

Cancellation fee
a fee for breaking a service contract. Many cellular phone service contracts impose a cancellation fee for ending the contract before its completion.

Cash flow
The money going into and coming out of a company. Cash flow is equal to net income plus depreciation minus the money paid out. The cash flow statement frequently appears at the end of a financial statement.

CDMA (see also GSM and wCDMA)
Code division multiple access – a type of mobile phone narrow band technology based on 900 MHZ radio waves, developed by Qualcomm of san Diego California, USA, which holds patents on it. The system is used in the USA and in North America for mobile phones. The system is in competition with GSM – technology, which sets the standard for mobile phones in Europe, and much of Asia. Being adopted by China. It is a civilian application of a system originally developed for military communication. Qualcomm's CDMA is one of a number of technology standards that have been developed to power the next generation of handheld devices.
CDMA is a digital spread-spectrum modulation technique Used mainly with personal communications devices such as mobile phones. CDMA digitizes the conversation and tags it with a special frequency code. The data is then scattered across the frequency band in a pseudorandom pattern. The receiving device is instructed to decipher only the data corresponding to a particular code to reconstruct the signal.
Early in 2000, China Unicom, China's second-largest telecommunications provider, signed an agreement to create a national mobile phone network based on Qualcomm's CDMA technology. Those plans were then cancelled, and a decision was made to set up a facility to build a CDMA network, but to let the market determine the future of the CDMA based system.

See also: spread spectrum, frequency spectrum, s-CDMA

CD-R (compact disc -- recordable)
An optical storage technology that encodes data on a laminated metallic disc. Also a blank compact disc Used to record audio or data files. You cannot edit, erase or rerecord a Used CD-R.

CD-ROM (compact disc -- read-only memory)
An optical storage technology that encodes data on a laminated metallic disc. One CD-ROM holds about 600 megabytes, equal to more than 400 floppy disks. Unlike a floppy disk, you cannot erase or edit the data on a CD-ROM.

CD-RW (compact disc -- re-writeable)
A blank compact disc that can be recorded more than once.

Cellular telephone service
Cellular telephone service - the most common method of wireless phone service. Sometimes Used to refer to all wireless phones, regardless of the technology they use.

CGI (common gateway interface)
CGI provides a standard way to run gateway programs, or scripts, on a web server. CGI programs can process data from web page forms, generate web pages dynamically from databases and perform many other useful functions.

Chat room
A web site where users send messages to one another in real time. Chat rooms differ from bulletin board services, which do not function in real time and may use nonlinear formats, called threads, to organize information.

Circuit
Circuit - Switched A type of network in which a physical path is obtained for and dedicated to a single connection between two end-points in the network for the duration of the connection.

Clock speed
The number of electromagnetic pulses that a computer processor emits, measured in millions of cycles per second (megahertz, or MHz). A computer’s CPU clock speed determines how quickly the CPU can perform calculations; a computer with a higher clock speed is faster than an identical machine with a lower clock speed.

Clone
Any computer system compatible with the original IBM personal computer standard. This includes all PCS that use both Intel microprocessors and the Microsoft windows operating system.

Codes and Dialing Prefixes
Country codes & dialing prefixes –   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_country_calling_codes Cold Call
An unscheduled contact, either on the phone or in person, between a seller and a prospect.

Com (.com)
One of the major internet domains, usually representing for-profit business entities. Other major internet domains are net., org, gov. , and edu.

Com port com
communications ports - are computer connections that link a mouse, modem, printer or other peripheral device to a system. Most personal computers come with two external com ports (also known as serial ports), along with a number of "virtual" com ports that the computer’s operating system creates to handle internal peripherals.

Compression
A technique for reducing voice files, maintaining quality to a level satisfactory to support the application. Major telecom carriers use compression in order to increase the traffic over lines and cables. See also MP3 format.

Conference Call
Any call which includes the connection of three or more callers simultaneously. For example, GlobalTel offers conference calling on all its services for up to 16 lines at once. See: http://www.globaltel.org/conference.html .

Connect Time
The length of time a caller is accessing the system, i.e., from the time the system comes off-hook in response to a ring signal, until the line is back on-hook at the end of the call.

Convergence
The concept of having all network data and voice traffic run through a single connection based on Internet Protocol (IP). Since early 2000, networking and telecommunications equipment companies, including Lucent Technologies and Cabletron Systems, have preached this concept of convergence.

Cookie
A string of text sent by a web server that a browser stores in a small text file on the User’s hard drive. A cookie is a small piece of information which a Web site stores on your Web browser on your PC and can later retrieve. The cookie cannot be read by a Web site other than the one that set the cookie. Although cookies have attracted a bad rap on privacy issues, they cannot read back information belonging to other sites nor can they interact with other data on the User’s hard drive. You can set up your Web browser to inform you when cookies are set or to prevent cookies from being set.

Copyright
An exclusive ownership interest in an artistic or literary work. The term "literary work" now includes computer software and other information stored in electronic form.

Corporation
A form of organization that provides its owners and shareholders with certain rights and privileges, including protection from personal liability. Corporations may take a number of forms, depending on the goals and objectives of the founders. Types include c, s and nonprofit corporations. Corporations are regarded as "persons" in the eyes of the law and may thus sue and be sued, own property, borrow money and hire employees.

COUNTRY CODES & DIALING PREFIXES
When making an international call one must dial the COUNTRY CODE, CITY CODE and the Special Connect Number. All countries have a country code and many cities have a city code. In North America, AREA CODES are used in place of city codes.
Every country also has a DIALING PREFIX (also called the International Access number). This prefix is usually 00, or 01, or 001, or 011. It is the code that one must dial in order to access the international phone system.

CPU (central processing unit)
The main microprocessor chip in a computer. Also Used to describe the whole computer "box," apart from the display screen, keyboard, mouse or other external devices.

Cracker
A person who breaks into computer systems in order to steal or destroy data. Some computer experts distinguish between crackers, who perform criminal acts, and hackers, who possess many of the same skills but do not use them for illegal or unethical purposes.

Crash
A hardware or software problem that causes an application to quit working. Some crashes render the entire computer unusable, requiring the user to reset or restart the machine.

D


Database
Database - a computer program that helps users organize information. Databases range from simple collections of rows and columns (similar to a spreadsheet) to complex systems that process and manipulate millions of records in a variety of ways.

Debt Collection Law in USA
Fair debt collection practices act - a federal law that specifies what debt collectors can and cannot do to try to collect late payments.

Demographic
A descriptive classification for consumers, such as age, sex, income, education, household size, home ownership or other defining characteristics.

Device Driver
Software that tells the computer operating system how to recognize and manage a peripheral device. A damaged or obsolete device driver can lead to a number of problems, including computer crashes.

DHTML
DHTML (dynamic hypertext markup language) - dynamic html is an umbrella term Used to include html and related technologies such as cascading style sheets (CSS) and JavaScript that bring animation and other interactivity to web pages.

DIALTONE
A tone employed in a dial telephone system to indicate to the calling party that the equipment is ready to receive dial or tone pulses.

DIAL-UP
A Dial-Up connection uses a modem through the phone network to connect to the Internet - a way to access an internet service provider by dialing the provider´s phone number through a standard modem The phone network is sometimes called POTS, for plain old telephone service. Typical dial-up connection speeds are 28.8K, 33.6K and 56.6Kbps. The current generally accepted base dial-up speed is 56.6Kbps.
Although relatively slow compared to newer technologies such as cable modems and DSL, dial-up accounts are still the most common type of internet access.

DIGITAL
Characterized by discrete states.

DIGITAL ACCESS LINE
An access line composed of digital facilities, containing no analog sections, and having a digital interface at the local digital exchange office (DEO) and a digital interface at the end-user voice terminal, voice-band data terminal, PBX, or interconnecting network.

Digital Cash
A system that stores and exchanges cash payments entirely in electronic form. Digital cash, like physical cash, is anonymous; it passes from one person to another with no record of possession or use.

Digital Certificate
A special email attachment that confirms the identity of the person sending the message.

Direct Mail Marketing
Materials sent directly to a prospect or customer via the u.s. postal service or a private delivery company.

Direct Marketing
The process of sending promotional messages directly to individual consumers, rather than via a mass medium. Includes methods such as direct mail and telemarketing.

DLL
Dynamic Link Library

DNS (domain name system)
An internet database that translates between numeric IP addresses and text-based domain names. When users type www.globaltel.com into their web browser, for example, the request goes to a DNS server that translates the name into the appropriate numeric IP address.

Domain Name
Domain name - the text-based URL or address of a web site. Domain names usually consist of several different segments. The name www.globaltel.com, for example, includes the generic "www" and ".com" identifiers, along with the unique name "globaltel"
What is a Domain Name?
Your Domain Name is your identity on the Internet. It is like having your own phone number. Essentially, Domain Names serve as routing addresses on the Internet. Each Domain Name corresponds to its IP address - for example, the Domain Name associated with 207.22.70.35 is verio.com.

Dot Pitch
The distance between two same-color phosphor dots on a computer monitor. The smaller the dot pitch, the higher the resolution. A .25 dot pitch monitor, for example, is better than one with a .28 dot pitch.

DSL ( ADSL, HDSL, etc.)
xDSL - The DSL stands for Digital Subscriber Line. The 'x' stands for any number of variations on the technology. The most common in the United States is Asymmetric DSL, or ADSL. The Asymmetric designation means that the technology provides different upload and download speeds. A variant called HDSL, for High bit rate DSL, is already widely used to provide T1 lines. The DSL technology makes it possible to use the excess capacity in standard copper telephone lines to carry network traffic. The speed varies, depending on how far the user is from the nearest switching station. It can theoretically provide up to 8Mbps, but more typically provides something less than 2Mbps. The fastest telephone Internet dial-up, or narrowband connection, is 56K and takes one minute to open the average Web page. The average DSL connection is 800K and opens that same page in about five seconds.

DSL (digital subscriber line)
A family of telecommunications protocols designed to allow data communications over standard telephone lines at speeds up to 1.5mbps -- about 30 times faster than a standard 56kbps modem. DSL service lets users receive voice and data transmissions simultaneously over the same phone line, allowing "always on" internet access.
DSL - Digital Subscriber Line. A network access technology that delivers always on, high-speed Internet access. DSL is designed to take advantage of that portion of the bandwidth which is not used by voice. There are many different types of DSL. The most common are ADSL, SDSL and IDSL.

DTMF
DUAL TONE MULTI-FREQUENCY (DTMF): Audible tones generated by push-button telephone (touchtone phones) to dial telephone numbers, conform to North American telephone standards. These are generated by pushbutton telephones to dial telephone numbers, as well as to provide control or data input to voice processing systems.

Dual band phone
A digital wireless phone that operates on both 800mhz and 1900mhz (personal communications service, or PCS) networks.

Dual mode phone
A digital wireless phone also capable of operating on analog networks when digital service is not available.

Duotone color
Reproductions made from a monochrome original.
E


E911 – Enhanced 911
In the USA, an emergency system for cell phones, called Enhanced 911, or E911, was proposed in 1996. In 1998, carriers were supposed to have the first phase in place, which would help police learn a cell phone caller's phone number and approximate location. A congressional report on 11 September, 2001 reveals that less than half of all police stations in the US have the first phase of the E911 service in place. The service would let them get the telephone number of the cell phone caller and what base station they were calling from; base stations can sometimes be miles away from where the caller is located.
None have the second phase in place, which would pinpoint the caller's location to within 100 yards, the report says.

E-check
A method of automatically paying for goods or services that works much like direct deposit in reverse. Companies keep a customer´s voided check on file, which allows them to debit the customer´s bank account for the amount owed.

EDI
EDI (electronic data interchange) the exchange of standardized document forms between computers for business use. Edi has traditionally been a very complex and expensive undertaking. As more companies build inexpensive, standards-based networks around the internet, however, EDI systems are becoming cheaper and easier to use.

Embossing
To raise in relief a design or letters already printed on a card.

Encryption
The translation of plain-text data, such as an email message, into an unreadable code in order to ensure its safe transmission over the internet. To read encrypted data, you must have software that allows you to decrypt it. There are several different types of encryption, the most popular form is called public-key encryption.

Ethernet
The most common method for transferring data over a LAN. Ethernet now comes in three varieties: 10baset operates at speeds up to 10mbps; 100baset, or fast Ethernet, runs at up to 100mbps; and gigabit Ethernet, which runs at up to 1gbps.

Extended service area
The portion of a wireless phone service carrier’s coverage area where customers may be charged long distance and/or roaming fees.

Extranet
An intranet that is open to certain external users, such as suppliers and business partners. These external users may log onto an extranet in a one-way relationship or they may connect their own intranet with the host intranet, creating a two-way relationship.

F


Fair Use
A legal doctrine that authorizes use of copyrighted materials for certain purposes without the copyright owner's permission.

FAQ
FAQ (frequently asked questions) - a list of questions and answers related to a particular software application, web site or issue, FAQs are intended to help users get answers to their questions without overburdening human support staff.

FCC
Federal Communications Commission of the USA charged with licensing and regulating the US telecommunications industry.

Fiber Optics
A technology that transmits data as beams of light along tiny strands of glass. Fiber-optic networks can transmit a greater amount of data than other kinds of networks, and they are much less likely to introduce data errors.

Firewall
What is a network firewall? - software that protects a private network, such as a LAN or an intranet, from intruders or unauthorized traffic. Firewall software usually screens traffic by IP address or other traits, admitting certain types of traffic while blocking others.
A firewall is a system or group of systems that enforces an access control policy between two networks. The actual means by which this is accomplished varies widely, but in principle, the firewall can be thought of as a pair of mechanisms: one which exists to block traffic, and the other which exists to permit traffic. Some firewalls place a greater emphasis on blocking traffic, while others emphasize permitting traffic. Probably the most important thing to recognize about a firewall is that it implements an access control policy. If you don't have a good idea of what kind of access you want to allow or to deny, a firewall really won't help you. It's also important to recognize that the firewall's configuration, because it is a mechanism for enforcing policy, imposes its policy on everything behind it. Administrators for firewalls managing the connectivity for a large number of hosts therefore have a heavy responsibility.

Flat Panel
A thin, light display screen usually employing LCD or plasma technology. Although expensive, flat panel displays are common in laptop computers and are beginning to appear in desktop systems.

Flat rate-service
Basic wireless phone service that offers an unlimited number of local calls or local and long distance calls for one monthly fee.

Font
Font - the style of the letters in printed material or on a web page. Common fonts include times, arial and helvetica. Also called typeface.

Format (reformat)
The setup process that allows a magnetic disk to store data. All disks, whether hard or floppy, must be formatted before they can be Used. Reformatting a disk completely erases any data already stored on it. Format may also refer to a particular file type, "Microsoft word format".

Freeware
Software that is available for anyone to use, free of charge. Most freeware is still copyrighted, however, which means that it cannot be altered.

FTP
File transfer protocol. A common method of moving files between two internet sites. FTP is a special way to log into another site for the purpose of retrieving or sending files. For example, GlobalTel distributes marketing files to its agents by putting them on its FTP site; agents then download them from the FTP site at their convenience.
FTP operations require special software that is built into the most popular web browsers and that is also available in a number of stand-alone applications. Web site builders need to know how to use FTP to upload files to the web host computer.

Full service agency
A firm that handles all aspects of the advertising or public relations process, including planning, design, production and placement. Many full-service agencies also handle marketing communication, public relations, sales promotion and direct marketing.


G


Gatekeeper
A person within an organization who controls access to high-level decision makers.

GIF
Gif (graphics interchange format) - one of the two most common graphics formats on the web. (jpeg is the other.) Gif images are Used mostly for line art, logos and similar types of graphics.

Gigabyte
One billion bits. Used frequently to describe the bandwidth capacity of LAN and high-speed internet connections.

GPRS Technology
General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is the next generation of mobile technology. Although not widely adopted yet, it's about to become very popular... Motorola has started (June 2001) to incorporate GPRS technology in its latest range of phones.

GPS
Global Positioning System. A satellite system designed to provide navigational data. Originally designed for maritime and aviation navigation, it is now widely used in the farming industry, sport fishing, automobiles, outdoor recreation, etc.

GSM (see also, CDMA & wCDMA)
GSM (Global Systems for Mobiles). There are two major technologies for mobile phones and the wireless industry. GSM is the technology for mobile-phones which is predominant in the European system for wireless. It may become predominant in China, the third largest telecom market after the US and Japan. CDMA (Code Diversion Multiple Access), is the predominant technology in North America. A third rival to these two phone network technologies is wCDMA (which see).
The audio encoding subset of the GSM standard is best known to computer users because its data compression and decompression techniques are also being used for web-phone communication and encoding wav and aiff files. See also: aiff, codec, wav

Gaurantee
A promise to step in and perform another's obligation if that person should fail or default.

Gaurantor
A person who makes a legally binding promise either to pay another person´s debt or to perform another person's duty if that person defaults or fails to perform.

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    Hard Sell
    Aggressive, high-pressure sales techniques.

    HDML
    Handheld Device Markup Language is a derivative of HTML for coding of information for microbrowser enabled phones. (Text only - no graphics)

    Home coverage area
    The portion of a wireless carrier’s coverage area where customers are charged the lowest rates for calls and pay no roaming or long distance charges. Also called local coverage area.

    Host
    A generic term that refers to any computer providing information or services to others. The term originated with large mainframe computers that acted as a "host" to a set of terminals. Now, however, it may refer to a web server that functions as a host to web browsers, a file server that acts as a host to other computers on a local area network and so on.

    HTTP
    Abbreviation for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. In the World Wide Web, a protocol that facilitates the transfer of hypertext-based files between local and remote systems.

    HTML
    Abbreviation for Hypertext Markup Language. One of the foundations of the web, html is a text-based language Used to describe the structure and layout of a document -- headlines, paragraphs, table elements and so on. It is The computer language used to design World Wide Web sites. It is the set of standards that lets web servers and browsers communicate with each other.

    Hyperlink
    Web developers use HTML to create hyperlinks that a user clicks on to view another web page. Hyperlinks can appear as graphics or as areas of differently colored or underlined text.

I


Independent Contractor
A worker who works on a specific project for a specified period of time. Independent contractors are not subject to tax withholdings and usually do not receive benefits granted to full-time employees.

Infringement (of copyright)
Any unauthorized use of a copyrighted work other than fair use.

Infringement (of patent)
Violation of a patent through production, use or sale of a patented invention or its functional equivalent without the patent holder's permission.

Infringement (of trademark)
Unauthorized use of a protected trademark or service mark or use of a confusingly similar mark.

Inserts
Extra printed pages inserted loosely into printed pieces. Often inserts are advertising supplements to a newspaper or magazine.

Interactive
A capability that allows users to select options from a menu of programmed choices in order to control the course of the session

Interest
Cost of using credit or another person´s or company´s money. Interest is usually calculated as a rate per a period of time, typically a year.

Interest - rate
Percentage of a sum of money charged for the use of the money. Borrowing $100 for one year at a 10 percent interest rate would cost $10.

Internet
A cooperatively run, globally distributed collection of computer networks that exchange information via a common set of rules for exchanging data (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP).
A network of networks, built upon a set of widely Used software protocols that links millions of computers around the world. Services such as email and the web use the internet to transfer data.

Internet Service Provider
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are companies that complete the dial-up connection between your computer's modem and the Internet so that you can "surf" or browse the Web, read newsgroups and send/receive e-mail. The relationship between the customer's ISP and the customer's computer is like the one between the long distance company and the telephone: a customer needs both to connect to the rest of the world.

Intranet
An intranet is a web site created by a business, which posts its own company information in a secure part of the Internet that only employees or other authorized users can reach. Intranets are generally protected by firewalls.
A private corporate network built with internet-based protocols and software applications.

Invoice
A bill prepared by the seller of goods or services. Invoices tell purchasers how much they owe.

IP
IP - Internet Protocol uses a set of rules to send and receive messages at the Internet address level.

IP Address
A numeric address devices use to find one another on the network and to exchange information. Every device connected to the internet has an identifying IP address. Most internet users never see an IP address; instead, they use text-based domain names, which are easier to remember.

ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network. The plain old telephone system doesn't handle large quantities of data, and the phone companies realized this a long time ago. So the ISDN spec was hammered out in 1984 to allow for wide-bandwidth digital transmission using the public switched telephone network. Under ISDN, a phone call can transfer 64 kilobits of digital data per second. But it's not always easy to adopt.
A set of communications standards that enable a single wire to carry data, voice and video transmissions at the same time. ISDN uses existing analog phone lines to provide faster internet access (up to 128kbps, or twice as fast as a 56k modem).See also: POTS, T1

ISDN (single/dual)
Integrated Service Digital Network. ISDN was designed for digital data and voice transmission. ISDN can have two 64Kbps channels--one for voice and one for data. The two channels can be combined to provide up to 128Mbps.

ISP (internet service provider)
Companies that provide access to the internet, either via dial-up access numbers or a dedicated service such as DSL. Many ISPs also offer web hosting, domain name registration and other services. There are thousands of ISPs, ranging in size from tiny local providers to giant corporations such as America online.

ITU
International Telecommunications Union - headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland is an international organization within which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecom networks and services.  http://www.itu.int/

J


Java
A programming language created by sun Microsystems. Java offers a number of advantages for internet developers and users: the same java program can run on many different operating systems, and java offers built-in security features that make it safer for computer users to download unfamiliar applications.

JavaScript unrelated to java
JavaScript is a relatively simple text-based scripting language that can be embedded in html documents. JavaScript lets developers add special effects to web pages.

JPEG (joint photographic experts group)
One of the two most common image types Used on the web. (gif is the other.) Jpeg is Used mostly for photographic reproductions. Also referred to as jpg.

Jurisdiction
The authority of a court to hear and decide a case. For a decision to be valid, a court must have both "subject matter jurisdiction" (the ability to hear the type of case at issue) and "personal jurisdiction" (authority over the parties).

K


Kbps (thousands of bits per second)
A measurement of data transfer rates.

Kilobit
One thousand bits. Abbreviated as kb.

Kilobyte(KB)
1024 bits (Approximately 1/2 page of plain text)

L


LAN (local area network)
A geographically limited communications network linking computers, printers and other devices. Ethernet is the most common means of creating a LAN.

Lanham Act
The main federal statute governing trademarks, service marks and unfair competition. It seeks to prevent deceptive and unfair competitive practices in the marketplace. Many states have similar laws.

LCD (liquid crystal display)
A display technology that uses rod-shaped crystals that flow like liquid and bend light when energy flows through them. LCD technology is Used in laptop computer and flat-panel displays.

Lead
A new and unqualified prospect or client previously unknown to a salesperson or company.

Lease
A contract by which a company takes possession of office space, furniture, technological equipment or other property for a specified rent and specified amount of time. At the end of a lease, the property reverts back to its owner.

Letter of credit
A document issued by a bank guaranteeing payment of a customer´s debt up to a set amount over a set period of time. Letters of credit are Used extensively in international trade.

Letter of intent (LOI)
An agreement, usually non-binding, documenting the general terms of a business relationship. Often Used as a prelude to a sales contract.

Liability
Any debt or obligation due now or potentially in the future. Liability is synonymous with legal responsibility.

Limited liability company (LLC)
A flexible business structure, popular with small businesses, offering owners the advantage of limited personal liability and the choice of being taxed like a partnership or a corporation.

Limited liability partnership (LLP)
A type of partnership recognized in many states that protects individual partners from personal liability for negligent acts committed by other partners and employees not under their direct control. Some states restrict this type partnership to professionals, such as lawyers, accountants and architects.

Linux
A computer operating system that operates computers. It is a potential competitor for Microsoft Windows. Finnish programmer Linus Torvalds wrote the original basic instruction set, or kernel, of Linux's programing code in 1991 and invited world programmers to improve it. Thus, it is referred to as "open-source software". As of August 2002, about 20 million people are using the system. It is not deemed practical yet, for most personal computers, but its appeal is growing. Linux-based desktop computers are now sold online at Wal-Mart, for $299. Wal-Mart is the worlds largest retailer. See  www.linux.com and  www.linuxdoc.org .

List brokers
A person or company who prepares, rents and maintains mailing lists.

Logo
A symbol that a company uses to represent itself or its brand.

Long term debt
Long-term debt obligations or liabilities that a company owes in one year or more.

M


Macro
A program that records a series of keystrokes, commands or other steps. Macros let users automate repetitive actions, such as running a series of identical formatting commands on a large number of documents.

Mailing list
Names, addresses and sometimes phone numbers of consumers or businesses aggregated by buying characteristics such as age, income, education, size of household or business and ownership of property. Mailing lists are used for direct mail and to generate sales leads. Many companies make a business out of creating, maintaining and selling these lists. When a company sells its list of customers to a mailing list distributor this raises privacy issues. Reputable companies have a privacy policy and its customers are informed of company practices as to disclosing customer information to third parties.

Market share
The percentage of a product category sales, in dollars or units, that a particular brand, product line or company controls.

Marketing communications
The process and techniques involved in marketing, promoting or selling products or services through creative, visual or written communications. Also known as "MARCOM."

Mbps (millions of bits per second)
A measurement of data transfer rates.

Mediation
A form of alternative dispute resolution in which a neutral party (a mediator) seeks to promote and negotiate a settlement between opposing parties in a dispute. There is no mechanism to compel the parties to settle; they must voluntarily agree to any settlement.

Medium (pl. Media)
A type of publication or communications method that conveys news, entertainment and advertising to an audience. Examples include newspapers, television, magazines, radio, billboards and the internet.

Megabit
One million bits. Abbreviated as mb.

Megabyte (MB)
A measurement of volume equaling 1,024,000 bits.

Micro-browser
A reduced browser capable of visiting web sites written for small viewers such as phone screens.

MODEM (Modulator/demodulator)
An acronym for "modulator/demodulator".The most common method to connect to the internet. A modem is a piece of hardware that translates data into sound and transmits the data over land line and wireless telephone networks. It is a single unit used to send and receive information over bi-directional carriers or digital bit streams.

Motherboard
See system board

Mp-3 (mpeg third layer)
A popular audio file format. Files encoded in mp-3 compress data at a 10:1 ratio, making it suitable for sending large, high-quality audio files over the internet.

MP3 format
A format which compresses digital recordings without sacrificing sound quality.

Mpeg (moving pictures experts group)
A common file format for sending audio and/or video over the internet.

Multimedia
Information that combines different types of content, such as text, images, animation, video and audio.

Multple Frequency
(MF) - A type of digit

N


NAP (Network Access Point)
A high-profile Internet and telecommunications fiber bridge A NAP is a regional telecommunications HUB where the world’s major telecom carriers have built infrastructure enabling them to connect to each other’s switches, lines and networks. The regional NAPS include underwater cable control centers, satellite communications control centers, land line and wireless control centers. Two of the worlds six NAPS are located in South Florida. GLOBALTEL's International Corporate offices and switches are also located near these two NAPs. The NAP of the Americas is located in the massive Technology Center of the Americas, in Miami, Florida, USA. The other NAP, built by BELLSOUTH telecom, is scattered over various locations in South Florida.

Negligence
An action or omission falling below the standard of care that a reasonable person would exercise in the same situation.

Netiquette(see also, "spam")
A code of conduct that governs behavior on the internet. Netiquette, for example, requires internet users not to send unsolicited commercial email, or "SPAM", to large numbers of other users. Many internet service providers and discussion groups will ban users who consistently violate these rules. See:  http://abuse.yahoo.com/, and  http://spamcop.net/ .

NIC (network interface card)
A piece of hardware that fits into an expansion slot on a computer and allows it to communicate with other computers over a network.

Nondisclosure agreement (NDA)
A contract in which a person or business agrees to maintain the confidentiality of proprietary information or trade secrets and not disclose such information without authorization. Employees, consultants, business partners and investors are often asked to sign nondisclosure agreements.

Nonprofit corporation
A form of corporation in which no stockholder or trustee shares in profits or losses and which usually exists to accomplish some charitable or educational function. These organizations are exempt from corporate income taxes, and donations to these groups may be tax deductible.

Numeric messaging/paging
A service that lets a pager receive pages and messages containing numeric information.

O


OCR (optical character recognition)
Software that lets computers "read" printed documents input via a scanner and converts the image into a computer text file that users can edit.

OEM (original equipment manufacturer)
A company that produces the equipment that bears another company´s label.

Overnight delivery
A service promising delivery of packages by 10:30 a.m. The next day.

P


PABX
Abbreviation for private automatic branch exchange. Note: Use of the term "PBX" is more common than "PABX", regardless of automation.

Pager
A pocket-sized radio receiver Used to receive callers´ phone numbers or short messages. Pagers emit an audible signal or vibrate (or both) when they are triggered.

Parallel port
An interface on a computer Used for connecting printers and other devices. Most PCS have at least one parallel port along with a serial port and special ports for a mouse and keyboard.

Parental company
A company that owns a majority stake (51 percent or more) of another company´s shares. It may have its own operations, or it may have been set up solely for the purpose of owning the operating company.

Passive Radar
Passive radar is a cell phone technology used by wireless phone companies to watch signals from common mobile phone transmissions. Cell phone towers are used by the cell phone companies to draw in the phone transmissions. When a plane passes through these transmissions it leaves a hole in the pattern and shows the location of the plane. Passive radar differs from traditional radar which sends out signals and waits for them to bounce off large objects in the sky and return.

Password
A personal identification confirmation code employed by subscribers to prevent unauthorized access to a voice service system.

Patch
An interim update to a computer program that fixes a particular problem.

Patent
An exclusive ownership interest in an invention for a designated period of years, granted by the government.

PCI (peripheral component interconnect)
A standard for connecting peripherals to a personal computer. PCI devices, such as modems and sound cards, plug directly into special slots on a computer’s motherboard and move data back and forth very quickly. PCI has largely replaced the older, slower ISA standard.

PCMCIA
Card digital devices, such as modems and network interface cards, packaged as small, interchangeable cards designed for use with laptop computers.

PCS (personal communications service)
A two-way, 1900mhz digital wireless telephone service typically packaged with calling features such as call-waiting, voice mail and caller id.

PCS Phones
Personal Communication Services - mobile phones. PCS phones rely on 100 percent digital technology. Both, PCS phones and cellular phones (analog), send radio waves to base stations that then route the call to the recipient. The digital technology transmits voice signals over phone lines very fast, like computer transmissions. With analog technology, a voice signal is transmitted as a series of pulses, similar to radio signals. Analog is more vulnerable to eavesdropping and cloning. Because of its high-speed data delivery, PCS is less prone to interference from hills, traffic or tunnels.

PDA (personal digital assistant)
A class of small, highly portable computers, such as 3com's palm pilot. PDAs are typically Used to store contact information, to access email and the web and to run other business-related applications.

PDF (portable document format)
PDF (portable document format) - adobe system's PDF file format delivers print-quality documents in downloadable form. Although PDF is a proprietary format, it is the de facto standard for delivering documents in which formatting is essential, such as business forms and schematics.

Peak period in wireless telephones
The high-use period of the business day when wireless service providers charge their highest rates, typically 7 a.m. To 7 p.m.

Peering
"Peering" is a relationship between networks that link together to carry the traffic of the Internet. It describes an agreement between the networking companies to link to and share each other’s networks. If a network company terminates this relationship it will cause a "blackout" for part of the Internet and some people may not be able to see some websites or send email. The relationship between these networking companies that carry the Internet traffic is unregulated.

Performance review
A mechanism for regular discussion and evaluation of an employee´s job performance, which often results in a salary increase.

Peripheral
Any hardware device, such as a modem, printer or mouse that operates separately from a computer's CPU.

Personal identification number (PIN)
A unique code assigned to a subscriber for purposes of access to a system.

Plug and play (PNP)
A Microsoft/Intel standard that lets users install new components into their computer system and begin using them immediately. In order for plug and play to work, both the computer and the peripheral device must support the standard.

POP3
Protocol used by ISP's mailservers to manage e-mail for subscribers. E-mail clients such as Microsoft Outlook support POP3.

Port
A connection for sending data into or out of a PC. Most printers, for example, plug into a computer's parallel port. Also Used to denote an address reserved for a particular use on an internet server. Most web servers, for example, use port 80 for incoming page requests, while telnet and ftp services use other port numbers.

Portal
A web page that provides subscribers the ability to access customized services on the internet. Mobile Web is a portal service that provides access via your desktop browser and your web enabled phone.

Power of attorney
A written authorization that lets one person act as an agent for another and to make binding decisions for the principal. A power of attorney can be limited to specific types of decisions or it can be general.

PPP (point-to-point protocol)
A set of standards that lets computers connect to the internet through a telephone connection. Most dial-up internet connections are now based on PPP instead of the older, less reliable slip protocol.

Press kit
A collection of publicity materials, including press releases and general company information, that is packaged and sent to media outlets.

Press release
A document that communicates information to the press. Press releases can publicize good news such as positive earnings and new product launches, or they can help control the damage caused by bad news.

Priority overnight delivery
A service promising delivery of packages by 8 a.m. The next day.

Process inks
The four basic printing inks -- yellow, magenta, cyan, and black. Process inks are printed over one another in order to create a colored print.

Promotion
All forms of communication other than advertising that call attention to products and services, typically by adding extra value to the purchase. Includes temporary discounts, allowances, premium offers, coupons, contests and rebates.

Prospect
A prospective customer who has the capacity to buy a product or service, but who has not yet decided to do so.

Prospecting
The process by which salespeople determine whether or not a business or an individual could qualify as a potential customer.

PTT
Post, Telephone and Telegraph. It originally referred to a country's government owned telephone company when each country had only one telephone company. Now it usually refers to any in-country telephone company outside the US.

Public domain
A copyright term that means a particular work is free for all to use without permission. Works in the public domain include those that were never copyrighted, those for which the copyright has expired and public documents.

Public-key encryption
This popular form of internet-based encryption includes two elements: a public key and a private key. An individual creates a public key and sends it to people with whom they exchange email. Recipients then use this public key to create coded messages for the sender. When someone receives a message encrypted with their public key, they use a secret private key to decode the message.

Pulse Dialing
An older form of telephone signaling associated with a rotary dial phone.

Purchase Order
A form that contains pricing, quantity and other purchasing information. Generally issued by a purchasing department within a large company or organization.

Q


Qualify the information
Gathering process that salespeople use to determine a prospect´s buying potential.

R


RAM (random access memory)
Chips in a computer that store frequently Used information, allowing the CPU to access it quickly. But data stored in ram is erased when the computer is turned off. Ram is usually measured in megabytes of storage capacity.

Re-origination
Technically the same as reseller re-file.

RepConnect
GlobalTel's Online account management system for Agents.

Resale carrier
A company that buys telephony services in bulk and sells them to others at a markup.

Reseller Refile
Redirecting calls between two countries through a third. Similar to transit services sales but generally implemented to take advantage of lower pricing on the alternate route.

Roaming
Using a wireless phone outside the home service area defined by the service provider. Roaming often incurs higher per-minute rates as well as daily access fees and long distance charges.

ROM (read-only memory)
Memory chips that permanently store data. A hardware or software vendor usually programs a computer's ROM. The software necessary for a computer to start, including the bios, is usually stored in ROM.

Rotary Phone
Phones with a rotary dialer which uses the pulse dialing system. This older system is being replaced by touchtone phones used for tone dialing. In countries where rotary phones are still widely used, an inexpensive tone dialer can be used to place over the earpiece of the rotary phone to convert it to a touchtone phone.

S


S/MIME(secure/MIME)
A special version of the common MIME email protocol that supports encryption. All the major browsers and email programs support s/mime, allowing using users to trade encrypted email even if they use different email clients.

Search Engine
Software that indexes web pages and allows users to search for particular keywords. Public search engines such as Lycos, Alta Vista and excite constantly index web sites and add information about these sites to their databases. Many individual web sites also use their own built-in search engines. Directories such as yahoo are not search engines -- they use human researchers to categorize web sites.

Security Deposit
A sum of money paid under an agreement for services to be supplied or for the use of real estate or personal property. The money is deposited with the supplier as a guarantee that payments required to be made under the agreement will be made. See also letter of credit.

Self-mailer
A direct mail piece, such as a postcard, that does not require an envelope or wrapper for mailing.

Serial port
See COM port

Server
A computer on a network that offers shared hardware or software resources to multiple users. The term may apply in a general sense to a computer that "serves" shared files or applications over a LAN, or it may apply to a computer running a specific application, such as a web server or mail server.

Service charge
The charge for providing a service.

SET (secure electronic transactions)
A standard for transmitting credit card data securely over the internet, set uses a series of digital certificate exchanges to verify the identities of consumers, merchants and banks. Although most major e-commerce players endorse set, the standard's cost and complexity have hindered its progress. For now, the simpler SSL standard secures most e-commerce transactions.

Settlements
The process of allocating revenues between two carriers involved in completing an international call. The "settlement rate" is usually half the accounting rate. "Accounting rates", are mutually negotiated fees that service providers agree to charge each other to cover the costs of putting calls through at both ends.

Setup Charge
The charge made when establishing or starting a service, usually thought of as being a one time, non-recurring charge.

Shareware
Software that anyone may download for free and pass along to others. The creators of shareware programs usually ask users to pay a small fee if they use the product after a specified period of time.

SHTTP (secure hypertext transfer protocol)
An extension to the web http protocol Used to transmit encrypted data between two computers, SHTTP is the most widely supported web security protocol after ssl. Whereas ssl establishes a continuous secure link between two computers, SHTTP encrypts individual messages.

Silent ringer
A phone or battery pack that signals incoming calls by vibrating or flashing a light.

Sister company
Sister companies share the same parent company or individual owner. Like a subsidiary, a sister company is a separately incorporated business.

Smart Key
This universal key, located on a digital handset, serves a variety of functions depending on where you are in the menu structure. It can be used to confirm a menu selection or to launch into a web browser. The function is clearly marked on the phone's screen near the location of the key itself.

SMS
Short Message Service is the ability to receive text on your phone in the form of an alert or an alphanumeric page.

SMS MO
This is a short message that can be "mobile originated" or entered directly from your handset's keypad. It allows the ability to customize a note or reply to a text message.

Sneaker-net
The process of moving files and applications manually from one computer to another without the benefit of a network.

Soft sell
The technique of using low-pressure appeals in sales.

SPAM
Slang term for unsolicited commercial email. "spamming" people with unwanted commercial email solicitations is considered unethical and it is now illegal in several U.S. states. Most ISPs will terminate a user’s account if they use it to send SPAM. The best defense against SPAM is to report it to the spammer’s ISP.
If you've been "spammed" by someone you don't know, don't reply to the sender, complain to the sender's ISP. Just send an email to the ISP using the email address: "abuse@Yahoo.com, or Abuse@AOL.COM, or Abuse@MSN.com, etc.
How do you find out whom to contact? Look at the domain. This is the part after the "@" sign in an email address or the last part of the server name in a URL. For example, the URL of http://www.yahoo.com has a domain of "Yahoo.com."
When reporting spam include the original message headers along with your message. Email headers show specific details regarding the source provider, path, originating program, and destination of the message which is not shown within the TO: and FROM: address fields of the email.
Unfortunately, "spammers" use a variety of techniques to mask the actual point of origination such as forging information to make it appear as though the email originated from a domain that is well recognized across the Internet. As with any widely recognized domain name, many "spammers" intentionally forge the email headers to make it appear that the email originated from an email account other than the one they are using.
Information in the header is very helpful when investigating Spam.
Spam legislation has not yet been enacted at the federal level. In the 106th Congress (1999-2000), the House of Representatives passed the Unsolicited Electronic Mail Act of 2000 (H.R. 3113). The "CAN SPAM" Act of 2000 (S. 2542) was a companion bill to H.R. 3113, although it differed from the House bill in significant respects. Several other spam-related bills were also introduced in the 106th Congress.
For more information see:  http://abuse.yahoo.com/, and  http://spamcop.net/ .

Spin
A special point of view, emphasis or interpretation of news or information. For example, a publicly traded company might put a favorable spin on lower-than-expected earnings in an attempt to prevent a negative reaction to that news and a potential drop in the company's stock value.

SSL (secure socket layer)
Netscape communications developed this protocol for transmitting credit card numbers and other sensitive data over the internet. Both netscape communicator and Microsoft internet explorer support SSL, which is one of the most widely Used e-commerce security methods (the other is SHTTP).

Streaming
Media streaming technology lets users play audio or video files as they download, rather than waiting for the whole file. Popular streaming media platforms include quicktime, realplayer and windows media player.

Subsidiary
A company owned by a parent company, a subsidiary is a separate legal entity listed as a corporation or partnership that is required to file its own taxes and compile its own financial statements.

Switch
Any mechanical or solid-state device that opens or closes circuits, changes parameters, or select paths or circuits.

System board
A printed circuit board in a personal computer that contains the main processor, expansion slots and other basic hardware. Also known as a motherboard.

Systems integrator
An individual or a company that specializes in making different software and hardware systems work together. Systems integrators often specialize in particular applications, such as accounting, enterprise resource planning or web and internet systems.

T


T-1
If ISDN isn't enough digital carrier for you, T1 offers faster speeds. T1 is a term coined by AT&T for a system that transfers digital signals at 1.544 megabits per second (as opposed to ISDN's mere 64 kilobits per second). Of course, if T1 doesn't cut it, there's always T3. (T2 seems to have been bypassed altogether.) See also: ISDN, POTS, T3

T-1
A type of high-speed internet connection that carries data at more than 1.5mbps. Dedicated T-1 lines can cost several thousand dollars a month. An even faster version, called T-3, operates at speeds up to 44mbps.

T-1 T-3
T1 - A 1.544Mbps telephone line that is made up of 24 64Kbps lines. The name comes from the telecommunications committee that designed it.
T3 - A 44.736Mbps telephone line made up of 28 T1 lines.

T-3
When you're transferring data across a digital carrier, T3 is the premium way to go. It's not just three times the capacity of T1, as the name suggests--it's almost 30 times the capacity. It can handle 44.736 megabits of digital data per second. See also: ISDN, T1

TAA
Telecommunications Administration or Authority (TAA)The agency which monitors and regulates telecommunications in many countries.

Target Market
A specified audience or demographic group that an ad, product or service is intended to reach.

Tariff
A schedule of rules and rates for charges by a utility sanctioned by the FCC or a state public utilities commission, or whatever governmental department oversees and sanctions a country’s telephone system.

TARIFF
A schedule of rules and rates for charges by a utility sanctioned by the FCC or a state PUC, or whatever governmental department oversees and sanctions a country's telephone system.

TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internet protocol)
These two communications protocols form the foundation of the internet, allowing any two computers that support tcp/ip to communicate with one another.

Telecommunications Administration or Authority (TA)
The agency which monitors and regulates telecommunications in many countries.

Teleconferencing
A meeting conducted by telephone among people in different locations.

Telemarketing
Using the telephone to sell, promote or solicit products and services.

Telephony
A catchall word describing the world of communications -- from wireless phones to digital computer communications to voicemail systems.

Telnet
An internet-based protocol for connecting to a remote host or server. Telnet was once the main way to access other computers over the internet, and it supported a variety of text-based email, file transfer, chat and information retrieval programs.

Toll-free call
A telephone call which is free to the caller, but billable to the recipient. In North America it is Used with the 800 and 888 system. Internationally it is Used with the UIFN and UTFN systems which also use an 800 number. In the USA, 800 has meant toll free for more than 25 years.

Touch-tone
A registered trademark of AT&T that names DTMF tones.

Touchtone phone
Phones with push buttons that generate tones to dial telephone numbers

Tracking
Overnight shipping companies typically enable their customers to find out when a package was picked up, when it passed through certain regional shipping centers and airports, and when it was delivered. Tracking information is available either through toll-free phone numbers or web sites.

Trademark
A name, phrase, logo, image or combination of images Used to identify and distinguish a business from others in the marketplace. The term is often Used to include service marks, which apply to businesses providing services as opposed to selling products. Trademarks can be either registered or unregistered, with different levels of protection.

Traffic
The flow of calls and messages across a telecommunications network, or to a PBX, or to a voice processing system.

Trojan horse
A program that appears to serve a legitimate purpose but actually performs a destructive or unauthorized activity. Trojan horses differ from viruses mainly in that they do not replicate themselves.

Trustee
A person or legal entity that holds money or property for the benefit of another. The owner of the money or property is known as the beneficiary. In most cases, the trustee and the beneficiary can be the same person.

Two-way paging
A feature of some pagers that lets users transmit confirmation that a message has been received.

U


UIFN
Universal international freephone number.
A universal international freephone number (UIFN) enables an international freephone service (ifs) customer to be allocated a unique freephone number(s) that is the same throughout the world.
A UIFN is composed of a three-digit country code for global service application, i.e. 800, followed by an 8 digit global subscriber number (GSN), resulting in an 11digit fixed format. (an ifs caller must dial an international prefix prior to the UIFN.)
The telecommunication standardization bureau of the ITU has been requested to perform the task of registrar for UIFNS, responsible for processing registration requests and assignment of the GSN portion of the UIFN in accordance with ITUT (new) recommendation e.169 and (revised) recommendation e.152, "international freephone service".

Unfair competition
A broad term describing illegal commercial activity ranging from trademark infringement to false advertising. Federal and state laws regulate unfair competition, and the remedies available range from money damages to court injunctions.

Unix
A computer operating system Used mostly in high-end workstations and servers. A number of companies produce not completely compatible varieties of unix. The well-known "open source" linux operating system is a variety of unix.

Unsecured debt
A debt that is not guaranteed by a specific piece of real or personal property. If the debtor defaults, the creditor does not have the right to seize specific property to satisfy the debt.

Up-sell
A marketing technique to increase the value or quantity of a sale by suggesting additional options or upgrades. For example, a fast-food restaurant may up-sell by suggesting that a customer buy a larger portion of a drink.

URL (uniform resource locator)
The computer address of a World Wide Web page. A web address for a website. The text address that allows users to find a particular web site or web page. The links on web pages also consist of URLs, which are embedded in the html code on the page. URLs comprise of a domain name followed by the file path to a particular file on that domain's web server.

USENET
An internet service that provides thousands of discussion lists, or newsgroups, on a variety of topics. users can read newsgroup postings or they can add their own. Most newsgroups are completely open, although some are moderated. You can view usenet newsgroups with special software built into browsers and email programs or via one of several web-based services.

V


VAR (value added reseller)
A company that modifies or improves a system in some way and then resells it. A var might, for example, integrate a software application with its clients other systems or it might buy hardware components and build complete systems.

Vicarious liability
When a person is held legally responsible for the actions of another even though that person has not done anything wrong. For example, employers are sometimes held vicariously liable for the damages caused by their employees.

Virus
A self-replicating computer program that infects a PC without the user's knowledge or permission. Most viruses are harmless, but many are very destructive. GlobalTel uses Symantec's Norton Anti-virus software. See:  http://www.symantec.com/avcenter/. This site offers virus newsletters, a virus encyclopedia, a reference area and links to global anti-virus resource centers in every region of the world. For numerous other links see the Virus Bulletin site at  http://www.virusbtn.com/AVLinks/

Voicemail
An automated service that answers phone calls and records incoming messages. Enhanced voicemail services add features such as personalized greetings, longer recording times and more saved messages.

W


WAN (wide area network)
A communications network that covers a large geographic area, a wan may be a public network such as the internet or it may be a closed, proprietary network run by a corporation or government agency.

WAP
Wireless application protocol – the de facto worldwide standard for providing internet communications and advanced telephony services on digital mobile phones, pagers and personal Digital assistants and other wireless terminals. See:  http://www.wapforum.org/

WAP Forum
The WAP Forum is the industry association comprising over 500 members that has developed the de-facto world standard for wireless information and telephony services on digital mobile phones and other wireless terminals.
The primary goal of the WAP Forum is to bring together companies from all segments of the wireless industry value chain to ensure product interoperability and growth of wireless market.
WAP forum members represent over 90% of the global handset market, carriers with more than 100 million subscribers, leading infrastructure providers, software developers and other organizations providing solutions to the wireless industry.See:  http://www.wapforum.org/

Warranty
A guarantee about the performance of a product, or a promise to perform a specific act, such as repairing or replacing a defective or broken product.

WATS
Wide Area Telephone Service. A telephone company billing plan to provide high volume, long distance, outbound service at a lower cost.

wCDMA
wCDMA is a phone network technology. It is different from, and a rival to CDMA (code division multiple access) phone network technology which was developed by wireless technology giant Qualcomm. Verizon Wireless, the largest wireless company in the United States, will upgrade to the so-called third-generation (3-G) technology sometime in 2004. Verizon has more than 27 million subscribers, and has spent about $5 billion building a wireless phone network that uses CDMA. But, when Verizon upgrades to 3-G it is considering changing to network equipment based on wCDMA. If it does switch, this decision could help declare a winner in the global standards war. See Also: CDMA, and GSM

Web browser
A program that allows an individual to view web pages.

Web host
A service that operates web servers for its clients and publishes their web sites.

Web page
A page in a web document. Unlike printed pages, a web page may be just a few words long or it may include thousands of words, images and other content.

Web server
A computer that publishes a web site on the internet. It usually includes the web server software, the appropriate software protocols such as tcp/ip, the web site content and occasionally other software such as e-commerce or database applications. When the web server receives a request from a web client (or browser), it delivers the appropriate page or performs the requested task.

Web-Ebill
GlobalTel's online account information system for agents and customers.

WML
Wireless Mark-up Language. A standard for developing applications that can be supported by mobile devices, i.e, web enabled phones.

Workgroup
Two or more networked computers that share files or other resources. A large network may consist of several smaller workgroups, each having different levels of access to various types of data.

Working Capital
The difference between current assets and current liabilities. Working capital finances the cash conversion cycle of a business -- the time it takes to convert raw materials to finished products to sell and receive cash.

Workstation
Once applied to high-powered computers Used for graphics processing, scientific applications or similar uses, this term is now increasingly Used to describe ordinary PCS connected to a network.

World Wide Web (web)
An internet service that links collections of documents, or web sites, both internally and to other sites. In addition to formatted text, web pages may include graphics, audio, video and other multimedia content.

Worm
Small, usually destructive programs that replicate themselves on a computer’s memory or hard disk, often until the computer crashes or becomes unusable.

WTO
World Trade Organization, based in Geneva, Switzerland. Promotes free trade. Members gain the right to market in other member countries on the condition that they reduce trade barriers as specified in treaties signed on gaining membership. See  www.wto.org .

WWW
World Wide Web – The most commonly used system for finding and accessing Internet resources. The WWW or World Wide Web is a collection of millions of computers on the Internet containing information that has been put in a single standard format -- HTML or hypertext markup language. It combines multimedia - text, sound, graphics, animation, and more -- with incredible ease of use and connectivity among its many different parts.

WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get)
Used to describe any computer program that displays content as it will appear in its finished form. Many applications promise WYSIWYG features, but differences in output devices and screen displays make it nearly impossible to meet this goal all of the time.